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In this tutorial, we will learn about how to create a program in C that sorts an array in ascending order using insertion sort technique. Here we have also created a function that can be used to sort any given array (by user at run-time) as per insertion sort technique in ascending order.

But before going through the program, if you are not aware about how a insertion sort actually works, then I recommend you to go through the step by step working of Insertion Sort. Let's move on and implement it in a C program.

Let's go through the insertion sort program first. Later on, I'll explain each and every steps involved in this
program. The question is, **Write a program in C that sorts any given array in Ascending order using insertion sort
technique**. The answer to this question is:

#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> int main() { int arr[50], size, i, j, k, element, index; printf("Enter Array Size: "); scanf("%d", &size); printf("Enter %d Array Elements: ", size); for(i=0; i<size; i++) scanf("%d", &arr[i]); for(i=1; i<size; i++) { element = arr[i]; if(element<arr[i-1]) { for(j=0; j<=i; j++) { if(element<arr[j]) { index = j; for(k=i; k>j; k--) arr[k] = arr[k-1]; break; } } } else continue; arr[index] = element; } printf("\nSorted Array:\n"); for(i=0; i<size; i++) printf("%d ", arr[i]); getch(); return 0; }

As the above program was written under **Code::Blocks** IDE, therefore after successful build and run, you will get the
following output. Here is the first snapshot of the sample run:

Now supply size for the array say **5** and enter any 5 array elements. And then press ENTER key to sort that array. Here is
the second snapshot of the sample run:

Let's take another sample run. Here is the final snapshot of the sample run:

- Receive size for an array and then receive elements of that size
- That is, if user supplied 5 as array size, then ask him/her to enter any 5 elements for that array
- Create a for loop that runs from 1 to one less than the size of the array
- Inside the loop, initialize the current element, that is element present at
**i**^{th}index of the array to any variable say**element** - Use if statement to check whether the current element is less than the previous element or not
- If it is, then program flow goes inside the
**if**block - Inside the
**if**block, create another**for**loop that runs from start (0) to**less than or equal to**the value of**i**(outer loop variable) - Inside this loop, check whether the value of
**element**is less than the value of**arr[j]**or not - If it is, then initialize the current index to a variable say
**index**and push all the element to its next index one by one using**for**loop - That is create a
**for**loop that starts from the value of**i**and runs until it is greater than the value of**j**(outer loop variable) - Never forgot to use break keyword to break out of the
**for**loop

- If it is, then program flow goes inside the
- And if the statement of
**if**'s condition evaluates to be false, then use continue keyword to tell the compiler to go back to the outer**for**loop. That is increment its variable and continue to do the same process as told above - After performing this and continue to increment the first
**for**loop variable (i), initialize the value of**element**variable at**arr[index]** - For example, if user has supplied
**1 5 2 4 3**as array - Therefore, at first run of
**for**loop - The loop variable
**i**is initialized to 1 and**i<size**or**1<5**evaluates to be true, therefore program flow goes inside the loop - The value at
**arr[i]**or**arr[1]**or**5**gets initialized to**element** - And
**element<arr[i-1]**or**5<arr[0]**or**5<1**evaluates to be false, therefore program flow goes to**else**block, and using**continue**keyword program flow goes back to the first**for**loop - That is, there was no any swapping gets placed, therefore the array is still in its original order which is
**1 5 2 4 3** - As the program flow again came back to the
**for**loop and increments the value of**i** - Now
**i**holds 2, and**i<size**or**2<5**evaluates to be true. Therefore program flow goes inside the loop again - Value at
**arr[i]**or**arr[2]**or**2**gets initialized to**element** - And
**element<arr[i-1]**or**2<arr[1]**or**2<5**evaluates to be true, therefore program flow goes inside the**if**block - The value of
**j**(loop variable of inner**for**loop) gets initialized with 0, and**j<=i**or**0<=2**evaluates to be true, therefore program flow goes inside the loop - And
**element<arr[j]**or**2<1**evaluates to be false, therefore program flow goes back to inner**for**loop and increments the value of**j** - Now
**j**holds 1 and**j<=i**or**1<=2**evaluates to be true. Therefore program flow goes inside the loop - And again
**element<arr[j]**or**2<5**evaluates to be true, therefore program flow goes inside the**if**block - And
**j**or**1**gets initialized to**index**variable. And value of**i**or**2**gets initialized to**k**(loop variable) - And
**k>j**or**2>1**evaluates to be true, therefore program flow goes inside the loop and**arr[k-1]**or**arr[1]**or**5**gets initialized at**arr[k]**or**arr[2]** - The value of
**k**now gets decremented and becomes**1**. And**k>j**or**1>1**evaluates to be false - Therefore, program flow goes out of this loop, and found
**break**keyword. Using this program flow exits the outer**for**loop (second one) and goes back to first**for**loop - Now the new array is
**1 2 5 4 3** - There the value of
**i**again gets incremented and**i<size**or**3<5**evaluates to be true, therefore program flow again goes inside the loop and follow the same procedure as told above to sort the array as per insertion sort technique

If you want to see the step by step array after each sorting on output screen, then you can modify the above program with below one:

#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> int main() { int arr[50], size, i, j, k, element, index; printf("Enter Array Size: "); scanf("%d", &size); printf("Enter %d Array Elements: ", size); for(i=0; i<size; i++) scanf("%d", &arr[i]); for(i=1; i<size; i++) { element = arr[i]; if(element<arr[i-1]) { for(j=0; j<=i; j++) { if(element<arr[j]) { index = j; for(k=i; k>j; k--) arr[k] = arr[k-1]; break; } } } else continue; arr[index] = element; printf("\nStep %d: ", i); for(j=0; j<size; j++) printf("%d ", arr[j]); printf("\n"); } printf("\nSorted Array:\n"); for(i=0; i<size; i++) printf("%d ", arr[i]); getch(); return 0; }

Here is the final snapshot of sample run:

Here is another final snapshot of another sample run:

Let's create another program that also sorts any given array in ascending order as per insertion sort technique. Here we have used while loop to short the code:

#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> int main() { int arr[5], i, j, elem; printf("Enter any 5 array elements: "); for(i=0; i<5; i++) scanf("%d", &arr[i]); for(i=1; i<5; i++) { elem = arr[i]; j = i-1; while((elem<arr[j]) && (j>=0)) { arr[j+1] = arr[j]; j--; } arr[j+1] = elem; } printf("\nSorted Array in ascending order:\n"); for(i=0; i<5; i++) printf("%d ", arr[i]); getch(); return 0; }

Here is the final snapshot of sample run:

Let's create a function that takes any two argument (array and its size) to sort that array in ascending order as per insertion sort technique. Here is the program that works same as above except that here we have created a function that performs sorting:

#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void insertsort(int arr[], int size); int main() { int arr[50], size, i; printf("How many element you want to store? "); scanf("%d", &size); printf("Enter any %d array elements: ", size); for(i=0; i<size; i++) scanf("%d", &arr[i]); insertsort(arr, size); printf("\nSorted Array in ascending order:\n"); for(i=0; i<size; i++) printf("%d ", arr[i]); getch(); return 0; } void insertsort(int arr[], int size) { int i, elem, j; for(i=1; i<size; i++) { elem = arr[i]; j = i-1; while((elem<arr[j]) && (j>=0)) { arr[j+1] = arr[j]; j--; } arr[j+1] = elem; } }

As you can see from the above program, we have declared a function at start of the program, that is before **main()** function.
This function takes any two argument, first is the array and second is for its size. We have defined the function so that after calling
the function, program successfully performs the action as defined in the function definition. Here is the final snapshot of the sample run:

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