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Types of Computer Programming Languages



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There are basically two types of computer programming languages given below:

  1. Low level language
  2. High level language

Low Level Languages

The programming languages that are very close to machine code (0s and 1s) are called low-level programming languages.

The program instructions written in these languages are in binary form.

The examples of low-level languages are:

Machine Language

The instructions in binary form, which can be directly understood by the computer (CPU) without translating them, is called a machine language or machine code.

Machine language is also known as first generation of programming language. Machine language is the fundamental language of the computer and the program instructions in this language is in the binary form (that is 0's and 1's).

This language is different for different computers.

It is not easy to learn the machine language.

Advantage of Machine Language

The only advantage of machine language is that the program of machine language runs very fast because no translation program is required for the CPU.

Disadvantage of Machine Language

Here are some of the main disadvantages of machine languages:

Assembly Language

It is another low-level programming language because the program instructions written in this language are close to machine language.

Assembly language is also known as second generation of programming language.

With assembly language, a programmer writes instructions using symbolic instruction code instead of binary codes.

Symbolic codes are meaningful abbreviations such as SUB is used for substation operation, MUL for multiply operation and so on. Therefore this language is also called the low-level symbolic language.

The set of program instructions written in assembly language are also called as mnemonic code.

Assembly language provides facilities for controlling the hardware.

Advantage of Assembly Language

Here are some of the main advantages of using assembly language:

Disadvantage of Assembly Languages

And here are some of the main disadvantages of using assembly language:

High Level Languages

The programming languages that are close to human languages (example like English languages) are called the high-level languages.

The examples of high-level languages are:

The high level languages are similar to English language. The program instructions are written using English words, for example print, input etc. But each high level language has its own rule and grammar for writing program instructions. These rules are called syntax of the language.

The program written in high level language must be translated to machine code before to run it. Each high level language has its own translator program.

The high level programming languages are further divided into:

Advantages of High Level Languages

There are several advantages of high level programming languages. The most important advantages are:

Limitation of High Level Language

There are two main limitation of high level languages are:

Procedural Language

Procedural languages are also known as third generation languages (3GLs). In a procedural language, a program is designed using procedures.

A procedure is a sequence of instructions having a unique name. The instructions of the procedure are executed with the reference of its name.

In procedural programming languages, the program instructions are written in a sequence or in a specific order in which they must be executed to solve a specific problem. It means that the order of program instructions is very important.

Some popular procedural languages are described below:

Non Procedural Languages

Non procedural programming languages are also known as fourth generation languages. In non procedural programming languages, the order of program instructions is not important. Ihe importance is given only to, what is to be done.

With a non procedural language, the user/programmer writes English like instructions to retrieve data from databases. These languages are easier to use than procedural languages. These languages provide the user-friendly program development tools to write instructions. The programmers have not to spend much time for coding the program.

The most important non procedural languages and tools are discussed below:

Object Oriented Programming Languages

The object oriented programming concept was introduced in the late 1960s, but now it has become the most popular approach to develop software.

In object oriented programming, the software is developed by using a set of interfacing object. An object is a component of program that has a set of modules and data structure. The modules are also called methods and are used to access the data from the object. The modern technique to design the program is object oriented approach. It is a very easy approach, in which program designed by using objects. Once an object for any program designed, it can be re-used in any other program.

Now-a-days, most popular and commonly used object oriented programming (OOPs) languages are C++ and Java.


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