- Computer Fundamentals Course
- Computer Fundamentals Tutorial
- Block Diagram of a Computer
- The Generation of Computers
- Types of Computers
- Classification of Computers
- Characteristics of Computers
- Applications of Computers
- Central Processing Unit
- Input Devices
- Output Devices
- Computer Memory and Types
- CD, HD, Floppy, and PenDrive
- Types of Computer Languages
- Types and Language Translator
- Number System with Types
- Decimal to Binary
- Decimal to Octal
- Decimal to Hexadecimal
- Binary to Decimal
- Binary to Octal
- Binary to Hexadecimal
- Octal to Decimal
- Octal to Binary
- Octal to Hexadecimal
- Hexadecimal to Decimal
- Hexadecimal to Binary
- Hexadecimal to Octal
- Algorithm and Flowchart
- Selection Sort
- Insertion Sort
- Bubble Sort
- Linear Search
- Binary Search
- Bitwise Operators
- Binary Number Addition
- EBCDIC & ASCII Code
- BCD, Excess-3, 2421, Gray Code
- Unicode Characters
Classification of Computers on basis of Sizes
Computers are classified into the following types based on their size:
Now let's define all the above types of computers on the basis of their size.
Desktop computers, laptops, gaming consoles, the sound and navigation system of a car, personal digital assistants (PDAs), tablets, and smartphones are all types of microcomputers.
Microcomputers are widely used and the fastest-growing computers. These computers are the cheapest among the other three types of computers.
The microcomputers are specially designed for general-purpose usage in life, including entertainment, education, and work purposes.
Well-known manufacturers of microcomputers are:
Here is a list of some of the main characteristics of desktop computers:
- Fast speed and accuracy
- Small in size
- Easy to operate
- Easy to move
- We can use desktop computers in a single-user or multi-user environment.
Minicomputers, also called mid-range servers, are more powerful computers than microcomputers in terms of processing power and capabilities.
Minicomputers are mainly multi-user systems where many users simultaneously work on the systems.
Minicomputers possess greater storage capacity and larger memories as compared to microcomputers. These are even capable of handling more input/output devices.
Examples of minicomputers are:
- 7500 MAGNUM
Mainframe computers are designed to handle huge volumes of data and information. These can support more than 100 users at the same time. These very large and expensive computers have great processing speed and very large storage capacities and memories as compared to minicomputers.
These computers even possess and work with more than one processor at the same time. Thus, one can say that these are multi-user, multiprocessor systems.
For controlling and keeping an eye on the operation of mainframe computers, you need very complex operating systems.
Examples of mainframe computers are:
- CDC 6600
- VAX 8842
- IBM 3090/600
- IBM 4381
Characteristics of Mainframe Computers
Here is a list of some main characteristics of mainframe computers:
- Run multiple programs concurrently.
- Support multiple concurrent users.
- Support new and legacy software.
- Run many different kinds of operating systems.
- Uninterrupted operation
- Performance can be measured in millions of instructions per second (MIPS).
- Perform tasks on huge amounts of external data.
- are flexible enough to run many kinds of applications and tackle broad business tasks.
Supercomputers are the most powerful computers among digital computers. These consist of several processors running together, thereby making them immensely faster and more powerful.
These computers are capable of performing massive amounts of calculations that are beyond the capabilities of humans.
Supercomputers can perform billions of instructions per second. Some of today's supercomputers have the computing power of 40.000 microcomputers.
A Japanese supercomputer has calculated the value of Pi to 16 million decimal places.
Supercomputers are mainly used for the following purposes or applications:
- Weather forecasting
- Nuclear science research
- Aerodynamic modeling
Examples of supercomputers are:
- CRAY X-MP-14
- ETA GF-10
- FUJITSU VP-400
- NEC SX-2
Characteristics of Supercomputers
Here is a list of some of the main characteristics of supercomputers:
- Focus processing power to execute a few programs or instructions as quickly as possible.
- focused on speed and accelerated performance
- Push the boundaries of what hardware and software can accomplish.
- Typically, they run a variant of Linux as their operating system.
- are typically run at their maximum capability, putting the computer's full processing resources toward solving a particular problem.
- There is often a cluster or grid of smaller computers working together on whatever problem they are looking to solve.
- Performance should be measured in floating point operations per second (FLOPS).
- Execute complicated computations using large internal memory.
- Have dedicated purposes for tasks like scientific research or engineering models.
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