Python vars() Function

The vars() function in Python is used when we need to find all the __dict__ attributes of an object. For example:

class CodesCracker:
    Name = "David"
    Course = "Computer Science"

print(vars(CodesCracker))

The output is:

{'__module__': '__main__', 'Name': 'David', 'Course': 'Computer Science', '__dict__': <attribute '__dict__' of 'CodesCracker' objects>, '__weakref__': <attribute '__weakref__' of 'CodesCracker' objects>, '__doc__': None}

Note - The __dict__ attribute is a dictionary that contains all the changeable attributes of specified object

Basically the vars() returns a dictionary containing the module's symbol table, that is generated by the compiler from Abstract Syntax Tree (AST), before the bytecode is generated.

Python vars() Function Syntax

The syntax of vars() function in Python, is:

vars(obj)

where obj refers to an object that has __dict__ attribute.

Python vars() Function Example

Here is an example of vars() function in Python:

print("The __dict__ attributes of 'int' object are")
print(vars(int))

print("\nThe __dict__ attributes of 'str' object are")
print(vars(str))

print("\nThe __dict__ attributes of 'list' object are")
print(vars(list))

print("\nThe __dict__ attributes of 'dict' object are")
print(vars(dict))

Following is its sample output is:

The __dict__ attributes of 'int' object are
{'__repr__': <slot wrapper '__repr__' of 'int' objects>, '__hash__': <slot wrapper '__hash__' of 'int' objects>, '__getattribute__': <slot wrapper '__getattribute__' of 'int' objects>, '__lt__': <slot wrapper '__lt__' of 'int' objects>, '__le__': <slot wrapper '__le__' of 'int' objects>, '__eq__': <slot wrapper '__eq__' of 'int' objects>, '__ne__': <slot wrapper '__ne__' of 'int' objects>, '__gt__': <slot wrapper '__gt__' of 'int' objects>, '__ge__': <slot wrapper '__ge__' of 'int' objects>, '__add__': <slot wrapper '__add__' of 'int' objects>, '__radd__': <slot wrapper '__radd__' of 'int' objects>, '__sub__': <slot wrapper '__sub__' of 'int' objects>, '__rsub__': <slot wrapper '__rsub__' of 'int' objects>, '__mul__': <slot wrapper '__mul__' of 'int' objects>, '__rmul__': <slot wrapper '__rmul__' of 'int' objects>, '__mod__': <slot wrapper '__mod__' of 'int' objects>, '__rmod__': <slot wrapper '__rmod__' of 'int' objects>, '__divmod__': <slot wrapper '__divmod__' of 'int' objects>, '__rdivmod__': <slot wrapper '__rdivmod__' of 'int' objects>, '__pow__': <slot wrapper '__pow__' of 'int' objects>, '__rpow__': <slot wrapper '__rpow__' of 'int' objects>, '__neg__': <slot wrapper '__neg__' of 'int' objects>, '__pos__': <slot wrapper '__pos__' of 'int' objects>, '__abs__': <slot wrapper '__abs__' of 'int' objects>, '__bool__': <slot wrapper '__bool__' of 'int' objects>, '__invert__': <slot wrapper '__invert__' of 'int' objects>, '__lshift__': <slot wrapper '__lshift__' of 'int' objects>, '__rlshift__': <slot wrapper '__rlshift__' of 'int' objects>, '__rshift__': <slot wrapper '__rshift__' of 'int' objects>, '__rrshift__': <slot wrapper '__rrshift__' of 'int' objects>, '__and__': <slot wrapper '__and__' of 'int' objects>, '__rand__': <slot wrapper '__rand__' of 'int' objects>, '__xor__': <slot wrapper '__xor__' of 'int' objects>, '__rxor__': <slot wrapper '__rxor__' of 'int' objects>, '__or__': <slot wrapper '__or__' of 'int' objects>, '__ror__': <slot wrapper '__ror__' of 'int' objects>, '__int__': <slot wrapper '__int__' of 'int' objects>, '__float__': <slot wrapper '__float__' of 'int' objects>, '__floordiv__': <slot wrapper '__floordiv__' of 'int' objects>, '__rfloordiv__': <slot wrapper '__rfloordiv__' of 'int' objects>, '__truediv__': <slot wrapper '__truediv__' of 'int' objects>, '__rtruediv__': <slot wrapper '__rtruediv__' of 'int' objects>, '__index__': <slot wrapper '__index__' of 'int' objects>, '__new__': <built-in method __new__ of type object at 0x00007FFDB32A8FD0>, 'conjugate': <method 'conjugate' of 'int' objects>, 'bit_length': <method 'bit_length' of 'int' objects>, 'to_bytes': <method 'to_bytes' of 'int' objects>, 'from_bytes': <method 'from_bytes' of 'int' objects>, 'as_integer_ratio': <method 'as_integer_ratio' of 'int' objects>, '__trunc__': <method '__trunc__' of 'int' objects>, '__floor__': <method '__floor__' of 'int' objects>, '__ceil__': <method '__ceil__' of 'int' objects>, '__round__': <method '__round__' of 'int' objects>, '__getnewargs__': <method '__getnewargs__' of 'int' objects>, '__format__': <method '__format__' of 'int' objects>, '__sizeof__': <method '__sizeof__' of 'int' objects>, 'real': <attribute 'real' of 'int' objects>, 'imag': <attribute 'imag' of 'int' objects>, 'numerator': <attribute 'numerator' of 'int' objects>, 'denominator': <attribute 'denominator' of 'int' objects>, '__doc__': "int([x]) -> integer\nint(x, base=10) -> integer\n\nConvert a number or string to an integer, or return 0 if no arguments\nare given.  If x is a number, return x.__int__().  For floating point\nnumbers, this truncates towards zero.\n\nIf x is not a number or if base is given, then x must be a string,\nbytes, or bytearray instance representing an integer literal in the\ngiven base.  The literal can be preceded by '+' or '-' and be surrounded\nby whitespace.  The base defaults to 10.  Valid bases are 0 and 2-36.\nBase 0 means to interpret the base from the string as an integer literal.\n>>> int('0b100', base=0)\n4"}

The __dict__ attributes of 'str' object are
{'__repr__': <slot wrapper '__repr__' of 'str' objects>, '__hash__': <slot wrapper '__hash__' of 'str' objects>, '__str__': <slot wrapper '__str__' of 'str' objects>, '__getattribute__': <slot wrapper '__getattribute__' of 'str' objects>, '__lt__': <slot wrapper '__lt__' of 'str' objects>, '__le__': <slot wrapper '__le__' of 'str' objects>, '__eq__': <slot wrapper '__eq__' of 'str' objects>, '__ne__': <slot wrapper '__ne__' of 'str' objects>, '__gt__': <slot wrapper '__gt__' of 'str' objects>, '__ge__': <slot wrapper '__ge__' of 'str' objects>, '__iter__': <slot wrapper '__iter__' of 'str' objects>, '__mod__': <slot wrapper '__mod__' of 'str' objects>, '__rmod__': <slot wrapper '__rmod__' of 'str' objects>, '__len__': <slot wrapper '__len__' of 'str' objects>, '__getitem__': <slot wrapper '__getitem__' of 'str' objects>, '__add__': <slot wrapper '__add__' of 'str' objects>, '__mul__': <slot wrapper '__mul__' of 'str' objects>, '__rmul__': <slot wrapper '__rmul__' of 'str' objects>, '__contains__': <slot wrapper '__contains__' of 'str' objects>, '__new__': <built-in method __new__ of type object at 0x00007FFDB32AC140>, 'encode': <method 'encode' of 'str' objects>, 'replace': <method 'replace' of 'str' objects>, 'split': <method 'split' of 'str' objects>, 'rsplit': <method 'rsplit' of 'str' objects>, 'join': <method 'join' of 'str' objects>, 'capitalize': <method 'capitalize' of 'str' objects>, 'casefold': <method 'casefold' of 'str' objects>, 'title': <method 'title' of 'str' objects>, 'center': <method 'center' of 'str' objects>, 'count': <method 'count' of 'str' objects>, 'expandtabs': <method 'expandtabs' of 'str' objects>, 'find': <method 'find' of 'str' objects>, 'partition': <method 'partition' of 'str' objects>, 'index': <method 'index' of 'str' objects>, 'ljust': <method 'ljust' of 'str' objects>, 'lower': <method 'lower' of 'str' objects>, 'lstrip': <method 'lstrip' of 'str' objects>, 'rfind': <method 'rfind' of 'str' objects>, 'rindex': <method 'rindex' of 'str' objects>, 'rjust': <method 'rjust' of 'str' objects>, 'rstrip': <method 'rstrip' of 'str' objects>, 'rpartition': <method 'rpartition' of 'str' objects>, 'splitlines': <method 'splitlines' of 'str' objects>, 'strip': <method 'strip' of 'str' objects>, 'swapcase': <method 'swapcase' of 'str' objects>, 'translate': <method 'translate' of 'str' objects>, 'upper': <method 'upper' of 'str' objects>, 'startswith': <method 'startswith' of 'str' objects>, 'endswith': <method 'endswith' of 'str' objects>, 'removeprefix': <method 'removeprefix' of 'str' objects>, 'removesuffix': <method 'removesuffix' of 'str' objects>, 'isascii': <method 'isascii' of 'str' objects>, 'islower': <method 'islower' of 'str' objects>, 'isupper': <method 'isupper' of 'str' objects>, 'istitle': <method 'istitle' of 'str' objects>, 'isspace': <method 'isspace' of 'str' objects>, 'isdecimal': <method 'isdecimal' of 'str' objects>, 'isdigit': <method 'isdigit' of 'str' objects>, 'isnumeric': <method 'isnumeric' of 'str' objects>, 'isalpha': <method 'isalpha' of 'str' objects>, 'isalnum': <method 'isalnum' of 'str' objects>, 'isidentifier': <method 'isidentifier' of 'str' objects>, 'isprintable': <method 'isprintable' of 'str' objects>, 'zfill': <method 'zfill' of 'str' objects>, 'format': <method 'format' of 'str' objects>, 'format_map': <method 'format_map' of 'str' objects>, '__format__': <method '__format__' of 'str' objects>, 'maketrans': <staticmethod object at 0x000001A17B484640>, '__sizeof__': <method '__sizeof__' of 'str' objects>, '__getnewargs__': <method '__getnewargs__' of 'str' objects>, '__doc__': "str(object='') -> str\nstr(bytes_or_buffer[, encoding[, errors]]) -> str\n\nCreate a new string object from the given object. If encoding or\nerrors is specified, then the object must expose a data buffer\nthat will be decoded using the given encoding and error handler.\nOtherwise, returns the result of object.__str__() (if defined)\nor repr(object).\nencoding defaults to sys.getdefaultencoding().\nerrors defaults to 'strict'."}

The __dict__ attributes of 'list' object are
{'__repr__': <slot wrapper '__repr__' of 'list' objects>, '__hash__': None, '__getattribute__': <slot wrapper '__getattribute__' of 'list' objects>, '__lt__': <slot wrapper '__lt__' of 'list' objects>, '__le__': <slot wrapper '__le__' of 'list' objects>, '__eq__': <slot wrapper '__eq__' of 'list' objects>, '__ne__': <slot wrapper '__ne__' of 'list' objects>, '__gt__': <slot wrapper '__gt__' of 'list' objects>, '__ge__': <slot wrapper '__ge__' of 'list' objects>, '__iter__': <slot wrapper '__iter__' of 'list' objects>, '__init__': <slot wrapper '__init__' of 'list' objects>, '__len__': <slot wrapper '__len__' of 'list' objects>, '__getitem__': <method '__getitem__' of 'list' objects>, '__setitem__': <slot wrapper '__setitem__' of 'list' objects>, '__delitem__': <slot wrapper '__delitem__' of 'list' objects>, '__add__': <slot wrapper '__add__' of 'list' objects>, '__mul__': <slot wrapper '__mul__' of 'list' objects>, '__rmul__': <slot wrapper '__rmul__' of 'list' objects>, '__contains__': <slot wrapper '__contains__' of 'list' objects>, '__iadd__': <slot wrapper '__iadd__' of 'list' objects>, '__imul__': <slot wrapper '__imul__' of 'list' objects>, '__new__': <built-in method __new__ of type object at 0x00007FFDB32A8AF0>, '__reversed__': <method '__reversed__' of 'list' objects>, '__sizeof__': <method '__sizeof__' of 'list' objects>, 'clear': <method 'clear' of 'list' objects>, 'copy': <method 'copy' of 'list' objects>, 'append': <method 'append' of 'list' objects>, 'insert': <method 'insert' of 'list' objects>, 'extend': <method 'extend' of 'list' objects>, 'pop': <method 'pop' of 'list' objects>, 'remove': <method 'remove' of 'list' objects>, 'index': <method 'index' of 'list' objects>, 'count': <method 'count' of 'list' objects>, 'reverse': <method 'reverse' of 'list' objects>, 'sort': <method 'sort' of 'list' objects>, '__class_getitem__': <method '__class_getitem__' of 'list' objects>, '__doc__': 'Built-in mutable sequence.\n\nIf no argument is given, the constructor creates a new empty list.\nThe argument must be an iterable if specified.'}

The __dict__ attributes of 'dict' object are
{'__repr__': <slot wrapper '__repr__' of 'dict' objects>, '__hash__': None, '__getattribute__': <slot wrapper '__getattribute__' of 'dict' objects>, '__lt__': <slot wrapper '__lt__' of 'dict' objects>, '__le__': <slot wrapper '__le__' of 'dict' objects>, '__eq__': <slot wrapper '__eq__' of 'dict' objects>, '__ne__': <slot wrapper '__ne__' of 'dict' objects>, '__gt__': <slot wrapper '__gt__' of 'dict' objects>, '__ge__': <slot wrapper '__ge__' of 'dict' objects>, '__iter__': <slot wrapper '__iter__' of 'dict' objects>, '__init__': <slot wrapper '__init__' of 'dict' objects>, '__or__': <slot wrapper '__or__' of 'dict' objects>, '__ror__': <slot wrapper '__ror__' of 'dict' objects>, '__ior__': <slot wrapper '__ior__' of 'dict' objects>, '__len__': <slot wrapper '__len__' of 'dict' objects>, '__getitem__': <method '__getitem__' of 'dict' objects>, '__setitem__': <slot wrapper '__setitem__' of 'dict' objects>, '__delitem__': <slot wrapper '__delitem__' of 'dict' objects>, '__contains__': <method '__contains__' of 'dict' objects>, '__new__': <built-in method __new__ of type object at 0x00007FFDB329F8B0>, '__sizeof__': <method '__sizeof__' of 'dict' objects>, 'get': <method 'get' of 'dict' objects>, 'setdefault': <method 'setdefault' of 'dict' objects>, 'pop': <method 'pop' of 'dict' objects>, 'popitem': <method 'popitem' of 'dict' objects>, 'keys': <method 'keys' of 'dict' objects>, 'items': <method 'items' of 'dict' objects>, 'values': <method 'values' of 'dict' objects>, 'update': <method 'update' of 'dict' objects>, 'fromkeys': <method 'fromkeys' of 'dict' objects>, 'clear': <method 'clear' of 'dict' objects>, 'copy': <method 'copy' of 'dict' objects>, '__reversed__': <method '__reversed__' of 'dict' objects>, '__class_getitem__': <method '__class_getitem__' of 'dict' objects>, '__doc__': "dict() -> new empty dictionary\ndict(mapping) -> new dictionary initialized from a mapping object's\n    (key, value) pairs\ndict(iterable) -> new dictionary initialized as if via:\n    d = {}\n    for k, v in iterable:\n        d[k] = v\ndict(**kwargs) -> new dictionary initialized with the name=value pairs\n    in the keyword argument list.  For example:  dict(one=1, two=2)"}

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