Python Programming Tutorial

Welcome to the world of Python programming. Here you'll learn Python, not only by theory but also by code. That is, whenever the practical programs are needed for the topic, I've included them along with their respective output.

Note: All the codes written in Python here are well tested using one of the most popular IDEs for Python, named PyCharm.

Note: Before starting the tutorial on Python programming, let's first read all the things provided here very carefully to understand all about Python programming, along with some interesting questions related to Python. I know it will take your crucial time, but trust me, you're investing your time in the right path.

So before starting the series of Python programming tutorials, let's see some world-class applications written in Python or some big multi-national companies (MNCs) that use Python programming.

Applications Written in or Using Python

In the IT sector, one of the top companies, Google, uses Python for its system administration and system building purposes. There are an extensive number of applications written in or using the Python programming language. These are the lists of some famous and well-known applications all over the world:

  • YouTube uses Python programming as its back-end (server-side) development, along with some other languages that are C, C++, or Java, and Go.
  • Google uses Python programming as its back-end, along with other languages such as C, C++, Java, Go, and Node.
  • Despite PHP being the core language of Facebook, they also use Python as its back-end development, along with other languages such as C++, Java, PHP (HHVM), Hack, Erlang, D, XHP, and Haskell.
  • Similarly, Yahoo, Pinterest, Spotify, Dropbox, NetFlix, Reddit, etc. also use Python.

Even NASA and SpaceX use the Python programming language for many purposes, like testing, automation, etc.

If these multi-national companies use Python, then there must be a big reason behind it. Those big reasons are covered in the What is Python used for ? section, given below. Most of the time, many companies use Python because of its versatility and dexterity.

What is Python ?

Python is:

  • an interpreted high-level
  • general-purpose
  • object-oriented
  • procedural
  • functional
  • structured
  • and reflective

programming language. Before going into the brief history of the Python language, that is, who, where, and when the language was developed. Let's talk about some questions, asked by many beginners before start learning Python.

I've answered all those questions related to Python programming, which provides a clear-cut understanding of the language, why and for what the language is used.

That is, if you're learning Python or want to learn Python, then it is a must to know the thing that tells, is it good to invest time in learning Python programming ?
Let's find out.

Why Learn Python Programming ?

Despite the many reasons provided below (after this section) to learn or inspire you to learn Python programming, the main reasons are:

  • It has an extensive community, which means that if any problem arises while doing the program in Python or doing any project or whatever you're doing in Python. You can find and get the solution from anywhere, over the internet, because of its large number of communities.
  • Python has a large number of libraries that help to cater to all your needs.
  • Python is a highly flexible language, which means that it can be used to develop a program that works for multiple purposes.
  • The development speed of a Python program is faster than other languages as it uses less code and is more productive.

Note: Python is one of the most in-demand languages all over the world.

What is Python used for ?

Python can be used for many purposes, among which these are a list of some common ones:

  • Web development: Python is increasing its presence in the field of web development too. Using Python's famous web frameworks like Django or Flask, you can write fast and secure back-end code for your website. Of all the web frameworks provided by Python, Django is the most famous and widely used. Also, it is highly scalable. Even Django, like a full-stack web framework, can be used for the front-end too.
  • Data Science: Python programming also helps to develop an application that extracts knowledge and insights from both unstructured and structured data across a broad range of applications. Scrapy is one of the most used data science libraries in Python, used for data mining. Nowadays, web scrapping applications are also being developed by many stealers too, to scrape things from the Internet. NumPy, Pandas, and TensorFlow are the three most popular Python data science libraries for data processing and modeling.
  • Machine Learning: NumPy and SciPy are the two famous Python libraries that can be used in the field of machine learning using Python. Basically, machine learning is a step towards artificial intelligence. Like human learning, where you're or I'm learning things, machines can also learn using data statistics and whatever you want to provide.
  • Artificial Intelligence: This is the field where I think Python dominates almost all the other programming languages. As Python is trending in artificial intelligence, It is, I think, the most used language in this field. The Pandas and SciPy are the most famous and widely used libraries in the field of artificial intelligence using Python.
  • Data Visualization: Python programming can also be used to create data visualisation applications. Data visualisation means representing data or information in the form of graphs. Matplotlib is one of the famous libraries that can be used for data visualisation in Python.
  • Operating System Applications: Applications for operating systems such as command line applications, system administration, business applications, etc., can also be developed using the Python programming language.
  • Desktop GUI In Python: Tkinter is one of the famous Python programming packages that can be used to develop desktop Graphical User Interface (GUI) applications.
  • Mobile Application Development: Kivy is one of the famous frameworks used to develop mobile applications using Python programming.
  • Video Games Development: Pygame is a library used in Python to develop multimedia related things like video games. The scripting engine of the game can also be written using Python programming.
  • Bots: Bots can also be created using Python programming. Bots are helpful for deploying an automated task over the internet or wherever the programmer needs to deploy. Bots work only on pre-defined tasks.

That is, the main use of Python programming is to develop applications for:

  • testing
  • monitoring
  • task automation
  • Data analysis
  • Data visualization
  • Scientific Apps
  • etc.

Is Python easy to learn ?

It depends on your skills. This means that, if you've got a basic understanding of any programming language such as C, C++, or Java, etc., then learning Python becomes an easy task for you. That is, it becomes very easy to understand the code written in Python.

The only difference is to understand its syntax, like the for loop used in Python, which is very different from these languages. The conditional statements are also different. And it should be, because it is a different language. But the main work or task of all the things like loops or statements or any other things like functions, classes, etc., is the same.

Therefore, if you have a basic command of any programming language, then learning Python is like learning HTML. But sometimes you'll have some difficulties in understanding the code. But don't worry, I've written an explanation of each and every code given here.

And if you've never learned any language before, then you need not worry. Because Python is so simple, even printing Hello World in Python can be done using a single statement, as shown below, unlike most of the other languages that require multiple lines of code, even for printing your first name:

print("Hello World")

That's it; this prints the string "Hello World" on the screen. Now you're getting the idea of the language's simplicity. Therefore, just start the series without any hesitation, whoever you are. That is, all programmes written in Python here are easily understandable by beginners too, as I've explained each and every code along with its output. And trust me, most of the time, you'll understand the code without reading the explanation of the code.

Sometimes, while I'm reading the code written in Python, it feels like I'm reading the book. It seems like a joke, but trust me, after sometime, you too will realise why I'm saying this.

How Much Time Does it Take to Learn Python ?

Well, it depends on you, how long or how deep you want to go in Python. But the basic version of Python can be learned mostly in a week, a month or two, depending on your skill. If you're a programmer, then it takes hardly 2 months to complete the basics of Python.

But to be professional or to be an expert programmer in Python, you need to give some good time to it. Also, you need to practise each and every code given here along with your self-practiced code.

Is Python OK for Beginners ?

As a result, because Python programs are less wordy, they are also easier to understand for beginners. After seeing fewer codes to do a program, more confidence automatically builds up in a beginner's mind. Python essentially provides English-like codes, which feels like reading a book at times.For example, the code given below adds two numbers in Python:

a = 10
b = 20
sum = a+b

If you read the code, it is like, a is equal to 10, b is equal to 20, sum is equal to a+b, and finally print the sum. That is, a+b becomes 10+20, so 30 is the output produced by the above program using the print() function. That's it. See how easy Python is? The above program can also be written as:

a, b = 10, 20

Both the programs given above produce 30 output. You see, how easy Python is. Don't worry about the first statement of the second programme or the whole program, if you're not getting the idea. Because this is just a demo, you'll get to know each and every aspect of the codes written in Python one by one in upcoming tutorials.

Why is Python so popular ?

because of its flexibility, scalability, rapid development, and excellent performance. Also, the popularity of Python is increasing day by day, as it is an easy-to-learn programming language with its simplified syntax.

The answer to this question is, I think, already covered in the section What is Python used for ?, which makes Python such a popular language.

Can Python be used for hacking?

Yes, Python is a very powerful language to work with when developing code for hacking purposes.And I must tell you that Python is one of the most loved languages used by hackers all around the world. It is an open-source language and has an extensive number of libraries.

As I've answered all the questions that must be asked before starting the series of Python tutorials, now it's time to get the background of Python, who, when and where the language was developed and all such details.

Who developed Python ?

Python was developed by Guido van Rossum, a Dutch programmer.

Where was Python developed ?

Python was developed at Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica (CWI), a National Research Institute for Mathematics and Computer Science. This institute is located in Amsterdam Science Park, the Netherlands. This institute is popularly known as the creator site of the Python programming language.

When was Python created ?

Python first appeared on February 20, 1991.

What are the filename extensions for Python source code?

Python allows multiple extensions that can be used to name the file. Here I've provided three filename extensions that can be used to name the source code or program written in Python:

  • .py - The most common filename extension. I've used this extension for all the Python program created here.
  • .pyi
  • .pyw

For example,

What languages was Python influenced by ?

Python was influenced by many programming languages, including C, C++, Java, Perl, Ada, and Lisp, among others.

Which Languages are Influenced by Python ?

Python has influenced a large number of programming languages, including JavaScript, Ruby, Swift, and Go, among others.

A Brief History of Python

The first release of a Python version was Python 0.9.0 in 1991. Python 2.0 was released after almost 19 years, that is, on October 16, 2000. whereas Python 3.0 was released in 2008, eight years after version 2.0 was released.

Note: The Python 2 was discontinued with the 2.7.18 version of Python in the year of 2020.

Note: Today is September 02, 2021. And as of now, the latest version of Python is Python 3.9.6, released on June 28, 2021. But as the official said, there is another latest version of Python coming today, and that is Python 3.11.0a0. Therefore, while you read this article, this version or the latest version may be seen.

Note: Python 2.0 (16 October, 2000) -Python 2.7.18 (20 April, 2020). Python 3.0 (released on December 3, 2008)-Python 3.9.6 (28 June, 2021) and to keep going...

What is the design philosophy of Python ?

This is the list of core or main aspects that were kept in mind while designing or developing the language "Python". That is, the main design philosophy of Python is:

  • Beautiful is better than ugly
  • Simple is better than complex
  • Explicit is better than implicit
  • Complex is better than complicated
  • Flat is better than nested
  • Sparse is better than dense
  • Now is better than never
  • and many more

Some Well-Known Python IDEs

To program in Python or to develop an application using Python, we need an integrated development environment, or in short, an IDE. Therefore, I've provided a list of famous IDEs specially used for Python programming. Those lists of IDEs are given below along with their essential details like how much disk space the IDE takes, in which language the IDE is written in etc.:

IDE Disk Space (MB) Written in Supported OS
PyCharm 600-800 Python and Java Windows, MacOS, Linux
Eclipse 150-200 Java and C Windows, MacOS, Linux
PyScripter 50-150 Python, Delphi, Object Pascal Windows
Atom 87-180 CoffeeScript, JavaScript, Less Windows, MacOS, Linux
Spyder 50-100 Python, Qt Windows, MacOS, Linux

Some more IDEs for Python are Emacs, PyDev, MS Visual Studio, Thonny, and Wing, etc.

Note: PyCharm is the most popular IDE for Python. I've been using this IDE for the last 4-5 years.

Famous Web Frameworks for Python Programming

There are plenty of frameworks available in Python. But first, let's go over some of the most well-known and widely used Python web frameworks.

Python Full-Stack Web Framework

The table given below lists only some famous full-stack web frameworks for Python. A full-stack web framework means a framework used for both back-end as well as front-end development. Let's check it out:

Framework Developer License
Django Django Software Foundation BSD
Web2py Open-source software, Massimo di Pierro GNU LGPLv3
TurboGears Kevin Dangoor, Mark Ramm MIT, LGPL

Note: From the above, Django is the most commonly used web framework in Python to develop both small-scale and large-scale web applications.

A Non-Full-Stack Web Framework for Python

This time, the table below lists two well-known non-full-stack web frameworks for Python. Non-full-stack web frameworks are designed to build small-sized applications only.

Framework Developer License
Flask Armin Ronacher BSD
CherryPy Robert Brewer BSD

Note: From the above, Flask is the most commonly used web framework in Python to develop small-scale web applications.

For a graphic framework, use any of these two famous frameworks, namely PyGame and Panda3d.

Python Programming Demo Codes

As all the essential details of Python programming are covered above, let's see some code written in Python. These codes are given to you to show you the demo of Python. You'll learn everything in the upcoming chapters.

print("Hey! Are you excited?")

produces exact the same output as shown in the snapshot given below.

python tutorial

Note: In the following chapter, you will learn how to set up a Python environment that demonstrates how Python code can be written and executed.

Here is another code written in Python:

print("Enter First Name: ")
name = input()
print("\nHey", name, "\nAre you Ready?")

This program produces the following output. This snapshot shows the initial output produced by the above Python code:

learn python

Now enter your first name, say James and, press the ENTER key to see the following output:

python programming

Note: I've written an in-depth tutorial about receiving inputs from user in Python separately.

Note: To learn Python without reading theory, that is by reading the code and its output, start with Python Programming Examples. I've written almost thousands of lines of code in Python. That helps a lot. But I recommend you first read the tutorial. Because the tutorial contains all of the necessary information about the topic, as well as an example code and its output.

Hot Topics in Python Programming

These are the list of some hot topics of Python programming language:

Message for the Audience before Starting the Python Tutorial

This Python programming tutorial is designed for all those who want to learn Python. Therefore, if you too are interested in Python, then follow the tutorial.

This tutorial is designed for all-that is for beginners, intermediate Python programmers, and those who want to increase their expertise in the field.

Note: I've included as many codes as possible in each and every chapter, to provide you with the best experience of learning in both theory and practise. All codes are written along with their respective outputs wherever required.

Note: All the code I've written here is using the PyCharm IDE.

Some Prerequisites for Learners

Python is good for beginners. Therefore, you can start learning Python here without having any prior knowledge.

The only prior knowledge is basic computer skills, which are needed to setup the environment for Python as explained in the next chapter.

But if you've got some basic commands in any programming language, Then trust me when I say that the speed with which you learn Python increases with your programming proficiency. So let's begin. Best of luck! 😀

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