operating system os

OS System Calls

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Operating system provides the set of system calls that define the interface between the user programs and the operating system.

The system calls available in the interface vary from OS to OS (Operating System to Operating System).

Operating Systems (OSs) have system calls for reading files.

Unix has a read system call with the following three parameters.

  1. to specify the file
  2. to tell where the data are to be put
  3. to tell how many bytes to read

As you know that the actual mechanics of issuing a system call are highly machine dependent and therefore it must be expressed in assembly language code.

A procedure library is provided to make system calls form C programs and also from other languages as well.

Making a system call is a special kind of making a procedure call.

Procedure calls don't enter the kernel whereas system calls do.

System call has the following three parameters.

  1. specifying the file
  2. pointing to the buffer
  3. giving the number of bytes to read

Here is a sample of a system call from C program.

count = read(fd, buffer, nbytes);

The system call return the number of bytes actually read in count.

In case, if the system call can't be carried out, either due to an invalid parameter or a disk error, count is set to -1, and the error number is put in a global variable, errno.

Now, let's take a look at some of the major POSIX system calls. Here the return code s is -1 in case if an error has occurred.

The return code is given as follows.

System Calls for Process Management

(1) Create a child process identical to the parent:

pid = fork()

(2) Wait for a child to terminate:

pid = waitpid(pid, &statloc, options)

(3) Replace a process core image:

s = execve(name, argv, environp)

(4) Terminate the process execution and return status:


System Calls for File Management

(1) Open a file for reading, writing, or for both:

fd = open(file, how, ...)

(2) Close an open file:

s = close(fd)

(3) Read the data from a file into a buffer:

n = read(fd, buffer, nbytes)

(4) Write the data from a buffer into a file:

n = write(fd, buffer, nbytes)

(5) Move the file pointer:

position = lseek(fd, offset, whence)

(6) Get a file's status information:

s = stat(name, &buf)

System Calls for Directory and File System Management

(1) Create a new directory:

s = mkdir(name, mode)

(2) Remove an empty directory:

s = rmdir(name)

(3) Create a new entry, name2, pointing to name1:

s = link(name1, name2)

(4) Remove a directory entry:

s = unlink(name)

(5) Mount a file system:

s = mount(special, name, flag)

(6) Unmount a file system:

s = umount(special)

System Calls for Miscellaneous

(1) Change the working directory:

s = chdir(dirname)

(2) Change a file's protection bits:

s = chmod(name, mode)

(3) Send a signal to a process:

s = kill(pid, signal)

(4) Get the elapsed time since January 1, 1970:

seconds = time(&seconds)

System Calls for Windows Win32 API

So far we have discussed or focused primarily on Unix. Now let's take a look at all the system calls for Windows Win32 API.

Here is a table describes the system calls for Windows Win32 API. Here, the Win32 API calls, roughly correspond to the Unix calls as discussed or given above.

Unix Win32 Description
fork CreateProcess Create a new process
waitpid WaitForSingleObject Can wait for a process to exit
execve CreateProcess = fork + execve
exit ExitProcess Terminate execution
open CreateFile Create a file or open an existing file
close CloseHandle Close a file
read ReadFile Read data from a file
write WriteFile Write data to a file
lseek SetFilePointer Move the file pointer
stat GetFileAttributesEx Get various file attributes
mkdir CreateDirectory Create a new directory
rmdir RemoveDirectory Remove an empty directory
unlink DeleteFile Destroy an existing file
time GetLocalTime Get the current time
chdir SetCurrentDirectory Change the current working directory
link Not supported by Win32
mount Not supported by Win32
umount Not supported by Win32
chmod Not supported by Win32
kill Not supported by Win32

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