operating system os

OS Document Based Middleware

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We have learned about some background on networks and protocols, now we will start learning about some different middleware layers that can easily overlay the basic networks to produce a consistent paradigm for the applications and computer users.

The well-known and very simple example is the world wide web (WWW).

The web was invented by Tim Berners-Lee in the year, 1989, at the European Nuclear Physics Research Centre.

The web has spread just like fire in the forest, all over the world since 1989, when it was invented.

The original paradigm behind the web was too simple, that is, every computer can hold one or multiple documents, called as web pages.

Each web page can contains following things:

Here, hyperlink is the link of other web page.

The web page will be opened when you click on the hyperlink.

A web page can have many hyperlinks.

The web page is displayed on your monitor screen when you request a web page using a program called a web browser.

When you click on a hyperlink, then the current page is replaced by the page, that hyperlink contains.

Each and every web page has a unique address.

That unique address is called as Uniform Resource Locator (URL) of the following form:


Here, the protocol can be http, ftp, etc., and the DNS-name is the name of the host, for example,, and file-name is the name of the file, for example, myfile.html.

Here, is an example of URL:

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