C++ Pointers and Const

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You have learnt to use const keyword for declaring symbolic constants. Using the same keyword, you can also declare constant pointers or constants.

A constant pointer means that the pointer in consideration will always point to the same address. Its address (to which it is pointing to) cannot be modified.

A pointer to a constant refers to a pointer which is pointing to a symbolic constant. Using a pointer to a constant, the constant value (to which this pointer is pointing to) can not be modified, however, the pointer can be made to point to another location. Following examples will make it more clear.

In the following lines, we shall declare four variables :

int n = 44 ; // an int
int ∗ptr = &n ; // a pointer to an int
++ (∗ptr) ; // ok : increments int ∗ptr
int ∗const cptr = &n ; // a const pointer to an int
++ (∗cptr) ; // ok : increments int ∗cptr i.e., the contents
++cptr ; // illegal : pointer cptr is const because address can't be modified
const int kn = 88 ; // a const int
const int ∗ptrC = &kn ; // a pointer to a const int
++ (∗ptrC) ; // illegal : int ∗ ptrC is const ie., the contents can't be modified
++ ptrC ; // ok : increments pointer ptrC
const int ∗const cptrC = &k ; // a const pointer to a const int
++ (∗cptrC) ; // illegal : int ∗cptrC is const
++cptrC ; // illegal : pointer cptrC is const

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