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C++ Mathematical Functions



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C++ provides various mathematical functions like fabs(), fmod(), log(), modf(), pow(), sqrt(), sin(), cos(), abs() etc. that aid in mathematical calculations.

C++ Mathematical Functions List

Arguments are the values required by a function to work upon. Following table, lists some commonly used mathematical functions and their purpose :

Some Mathematical Functions in math.h
Function Prototype Description Example
acos double acos(double arg) The acos() function returns the arc cosine of arg.
The argument to acos() must be in the range -1 to 1;
otherwise, a domain error occurs.
double val = -0.5;
cout<<acos(val);
asin double asin(double arg) The asin() function returns the arc sine of arg.
The argument to asin() must be in the range -1 to 1
double val = -10;
cout<<asin(val);
atan double atan(double arg) The atan() function returns the arc tangent of arg atan(val);
(val is a double type identifier)
atan2 double atan2(double b, double a) The atan2() function returns the arc tangent of b/a. double val = -10;
cout<<atan2(val, 1.0);
ceil double ceil(double num) The ceil() function returns the smallest integer represented as a double not less than num ceil(1.03) gives 2.0 ceil (-1.03) gives -1.0
cos double cos(double arg) The cos() function returns the cosine of arg.
The value of arg must be in radians
cos(val)
(val is a double type identifier)
cosh double cosh(double arg) The cosh() function returns the hyperbolic cosine of arg.
The value of arg must be in radians
cosh(val);
(val is a double type identifier)
exp double exp(double arg) The exp() function returns the natural logarithm e raised to the arg power exp(2.0) gives the value of e2
fabs double fabs(double num) The fabs() function returns the absolute value of num fabs(1.0) gives 1.0
fabs(-1.0) gives 1.0
floor double floor(double num) The floor() function returns the largest integer (represented by double) not greater than num floor(1.03) gives 1.0
floor(-1.03) gives -2.0
fmod double fmod(double x, double y) The fmod() function returns the remainder of the division x/y fmod(10.0, 4.0) returns 2.0
log double log(double num) The log() function returns the natural logarithm for num.
A domain error occurs if num is negative and a range error occurs if the argument num is zero
log(1.0) gives the natural logarithm for 1.0
log10 double log10(double num) The log10() function returns the base 10 logarithm for num.
A domain error occurs if num is negative and a range error occurs if the argument is zero
log10(1.0) gives base 10 logarithm for 1.0
pow double pow(double base, double exp) The pow() function returns base raised to exp power i.e., base exp.
A domain error occurs if base = 0 and exp <= 0. Also if base < 0 and exp is not integer.
pow(3.0, 0) gives value of 30
pow(4.0, 2.0) gives value of 42
sin double sin(double arg) The sin() function returns the sin of arg.
The value of arg must be in radians
sin(val)
(val is a double type identifier)
sinh double sinh(double arg) The sinh() function returns the hyperbolic sine of arg.
The value of arg must be in radians
sinh(val)
(val is a double type identifier)
sqrt double sqrt(double num) The sqrt() function returns the square root of num.
If num < 0, domain error occurs
sqrt(81.0) gives 9.0
tan double tan(double arg) The tan() function returns the tangent of arg.
The value of arg must be in radians
tan(val)
tanh double tanh(double arg) The tanh() function returns the hyperbolic tangent of arg.
The value of arg must be in radians
tanh(val)

Following is a simple example, shows few of the mathematical operations:

/* C++ Mathematical Functions */

#include<iostream.h>
#include<conio.h>
#include<math.h>
void main()
{
	clrscr();

	short int si = 100;
	int i = -1000;
	long int li = 1300;
	float f = 230.47;
	double d = 200.347;

	cout<<"sqrt(si): "<<sqrt(si)<<endl;
	cout<<"pow(li, 3): "<<pow(li, 3)<<endl;
	cout<<"sin(d): "<<sin(d)<<endl;
	cout<<"abs(i) : "<<abs(i)<<endl;
	cout<<"floor(d): "<<floor(d)<<endl;
	cout<<"sqrt(f): "<<sqrt(f)<<endl;
	cout<<"pow(d, 2): "<<pow(d, 2)<<endl;

	getch();
}

Here is the sample output of the above C++ program:

c++ mathematical functions

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